Remember to Take Your Vitamins

What are Vitamins?

We hear about vitamins all the time, but what are they exactly?  Here is a simple definition:

A vitamin is a nutrient required by our bodies that we cannot produce on our own.  As a result, vitamins must be obtained from the food we eat.

This isn’t a perfect definition, but I think it is close enough to get the point across.

What Vitamins Do We Need and Where Can We Get Them?

There are a lot of different opinions on what vitamins we need and how we should get them.  Some recommend taking supplements while others suggest we can get everything we need by choosing our foods appropriately.  Some discuss the pros and cons of enrichment (adding the vitamins to food).

I don’t think there is any one right answer, and people need to decide based on their own individual health and circumstances.

What is your opinion?  Do you think we can get all the vitamins we need from the food we eat, or are supplements a requirement?  Please leave a comment.

The following sections describe some the common vitamins we need, why we need them, and some natural food sources that contain the vitamins.

(Information was obtained from the Dietitians of Canada and the Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes Tables.)

Vitamin A (Beta carotene):

What Does It Do?

Helps maintain good vision (necessary for night vision), resistance to infections, and supports growth and repair of body tissues.

Vitamin A is fat soluble.

Where CAN We Get It?

Liver, eggs, whole milk, dark green leafy vegetables, yellow and orange vegetables, and fruit.

How Much Do We Need Per Day?

  • Adult Male 600 – 900 µg
  • Adult Female 600 – 700 µg
  • Children 400 – 500 µg

Vitamin B-1 (Thiamine):

What Does It Do?

Helps metabolize carbohydrates, maintain appetite and normal digestion. Essential for nervous tissue function.

Thiamine is water soluble.

Where CAN We Get It?

Oatmeal, enriched breads and grains, rice, dairy products, fish, pork, liver, nuts, legumes.

How Much Do We Need Per Day?

  • Adult Male 0.9 – 1.2 mg
  • Adult Female 0.9 – 1.1 mg
  • Children 0.2 – 0.6 mg

Vitamin B-2 (Riboflavin):

What Does It Do?

Helps body break down amino acids, regulates energy, growth, hormones, and formation of red blood cells. Supports cellular breathing. Prevents red, cracked lips and burning tongue.

Riboflavin is water-soluble.

Where CAN We Get It?

Dairy products, eggs, organ meats, enriched breads and grains, green leafy vegetables.

How Much Do We Need Per Day?

  • Adult Male 0.9 – 1.3 mg
  • Adult Female 0.9 – 1.1 mg
  • Children 0.3 – 0.6 mg

Vitamin B-3 (Niacin):

What Does It Do?

Niacin assists in the functioning of the digestive system, skin, and nerves. It is also important for the conversion of food to energy.

Niacin is water-soluble.

Where CAN We Get It?

Organ meats, peanuts, brewer’s yeast, enriched breads and grains, meats, poultry, fish and nuts.

How Much Do We Need Per Day?

  • Adult Male 12 – 16 mg
  • Adult Female 12 – 14 mg
  • Children 2 – 8 mg

Vitamin B-5 (Pantothenic Acid):

What Does It Do?

Helps body metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and make steroids.

Where CAN We Get It?

Chicken, beef, potatoes, oat cereals, tomato products are reported to some of the major sources of pantothenic acid.

How Much Do We Need Per Day?

  • Adult Male 4 – 5 mg
  • Adult Female 4 – 5 mg
  • Children 1.7 – 3 mg

Vitamin B-6:

What Does It Do?

It helps maintain normal nerve function and acts in the formation of red blood cells. It is also required for the chemical reactions of proteins. The higher the protein intake, the more need there is for vitamin B6.
Deficiency can cause dizziness, nausea, confusion, irritability and convulsions.

Vitamin B-6 is water-soluble.

Where CAN We Get It?

Brewer’s yeast, wheat germ, pork, liver, whole-grain cereals, potatoes, milk, fruits and vegetables.

How Much Do We Need Per Day?

  • Adult Male 1.0 – 1.7 mg
  • Adult Female 1.0 – 1.5 mg
  • Children 0.1 – 0.6 mg

Vitamin B-12:

What Does It Do?

Contributes to red blood cell health and development.

Where CAN We Get It?

B12 is synthesized by intestinal bacteria. B12 is available only from fish, poultry, meat or dairy sources in food.

How Much Do We Need Per Day?

  • Adult Male 1.8 – 2.4 µg
  • Adult Female 1.8 – 2.4 µg
  • Children 0.4 – 1.2 µg

Vitamin C:

What Does It Do?

Important for wound healing, bone fractures, and resistance to infections. Strengthens blood vessels. Helps body absorb non-heme iron when the two are ingested together. (

Vitamin C is water-soluble.

Where CAN We Get It?

Citrus fruits, leafy vegetables, tomatoes, strawberries.

How Much Do We Need Per Day?

  • Adult Male 45 – 90 mg
  • Adult Female 45 – 75 mg
  • Children 15 – 50 mg

Vitamin D:

What Does It Do?

Regulates absorption of calcium and phosphorus for bone health.

Vitamin D is fat soluble.

Where CAN We Get It?

Liver, butter, fortified milk, fatty fish (fish liver oils).

How Much Do We Need Per Day?

  • Adult Male 5 – 15 µg
  • Adult Female 5 – 15 µg
  • Children 5 µg

Vitamin K:

What Does It Do?

Helps make factors that promote blood clotting.

Vitamin K is fat soluble.

Where CAN We Get It?

Green leafy vegetables, liver, wheat bran, tomatoes, cheese, egg yolk.

How Much Do We Need Per Day?

  • Adult Male 60 – 120 µg
  • Adult Female 60 – 90 µg
  • Children 2.0 – 55 µg

Folic Acid:

What Does It Do?

Essential for blood cell formation, protein metabolism, and prevention of neural tube defects.

Folic acid is water-soluble.

Where CAN We Get It?

Liver, lima and kidney beans, dark green leafy vegetables, beef, potatoes, whole wheat bread.

How Much Do We Need Per Day?

  • Adult Male 300 – 400 µg
  • Adult Female 300 – 400 µg
  • Children 65 – 200 µg


Posted in Ingredients, Nutrition


What is Alitame?

Alitame is artificial sweetener. Developed by Pfizer in the 1980’s, it is marketed under the brand name “Aclame”.


The sweetener industry is very big and there is a lot of potential for profit. After the discovery of aspartame in the 70’s, scientists began search for other similar sweeteners. Alitame is one of these second generation artificial sweeteners.

It is a dipeptide similar to aspartame, and contains the amino acids aspartic acid and alanine.

Alitame has the following properties that give it the advantage over other artificial sweeteners like aspartame.

  • 2000 times sweeter than sucrose (about 10 times sweeter than aspartame)
  • no aftertaste
  • does not contain phenylalanin (can be used by people with phenylketonuria)
  • more stable under hot or acidic conditions than aspartame (but less stable than saccharin or acesulfame potassium)

Alitame is not currently approved in the US and the company that now owns the rights have withdrawn their FDA petition for approval. The reason cited is that the costs to produce it were too high.

Alitame is approved in a number of other countries, including Australia and Mexico.

E Number:

The E number for alitame is 956.

Posted in Food Additives, Sweetener

Sweetness Scale

Picture of some common Sweeteners

Does a Sweetness Scale Exist?

Picture of some common Sweeteners

How Does Sweetness Compare?

In the last few weeks, I’ve noticed a lot of people who come to this blog have been searching for a sugar sweetness scale. When I first saw this trend I was reminded of the Scoville scale used to rate peppers and hot sauces. I always wondered why there wasn’t something similar for sweetness.

Mainly, the answer is because the Scoville scale is very specific. It applies only to peppers (and hot sauces made with peppers). The spicy-ness of the pepper is measured by determining the amount of the chemical capsaicin present in the pepper.

When it comes to measuring sweetness, we are not usually specific. There are a lot of sweeteners available (both natural and artifical). A sweetness scale similar to the Scoville scale would measure only one type of sweetener in a particular type of food. For example, we could have an apple sweetness scale that measures the amount of fructose in different varieties of apples.

There are other problems with a standard sweetness measurement. For instance, having a single number for sweetness does not take into account interactions between sweeteners and other substances.

Despite the problems, lets look at what types of sweeteners are available, and how they compare for “sweetness”.


What Types of Sweeteners are Available?

The following list shows some of the most common sweeteners available commercially. Some sweeteners are available to home cooks while others are exclusively used in industrially processed foods.

Sugar Beet or Sugar Cane Products:

    • Dry granulated sugar

Also called sucrose, this is the table sugar most of us are familiar with. Sucrose is a disaccharide meaning it is composed of one molcule of glucose and on molecule of fructose.

    • Liquid sugar / sucrose

This is just the melted form of dry granulated sugar. It is generally composed of 66% to 68% sucrose and 34% to 32% water.

    • Invert liquid sugar

This sugar is made from sucrose by splitting the sucrose into glucose and fructose and then re-combining these component sugars. Invert sugar has a higher sweetness than ordinary sucrose.

Molasses is a byproduct of procesing sugar cane or sugar beets into sugar. It contains roughly 30% sucrose, 12% glucose, and 12% fructose.

Light Molasses:

Light molasses is produced after the first boiling of the sugar cane or sugar beet. It is light in color and sweet in taste. Other names for light molasses include sweet, Barbados, first” or mild molasses.

Dark Molasses:

Dark molasses, results after the second boiling and more sugar is extracted. It is darker in color, thicker and less sweet.

Blackstrap Molasses:

Blackstrap molasses is the syrup produced after the third boiling. It is very thick and dark in colour, and has a bitter taste.

Sulphured Molasses:

Sulphur dioxide is sometimes added to molasses as a preservative because molasses will ferment. It changes the flavour, so molasses may be labelled sulphured or unsulphured.

Fancy Molasses:

Fancy molasses isn’t actually a by-product, but produced directly from the juice of the sugar cane. It is the lightest and sweetest of the different types of molasses.

Cooking Molasses:

Cooking molasses is a blend of fancy molasses and blackstrap molasses.

    • Brown, yellow, or golden sugar

This a fine-grain sugar (sucrose) covered with a thin layer of syrup, usually molasses.

Corn Products:

    • Corn syrup

Produced from the starch in corn, this type of syrup gets most of its sweetness from a high glucose content. Corn syrup is the only type of corn sugar sold in retail markets in North America.

    • Glucose (dextrose)

Glucose is the result of the complete breakdown of the starch in corn. In industry, glucose can also be referred to as corn syrup which can be confusing.

    • Corn syrup solids

These are basically dried forms of glucose syrup.

    • High fructose corn syrup

This is similar to invert sugar, but it does not have equal ratios of glucose and fructose. The fructose levels are higher so that a higher sweetness is obtained with less syrup.

    • Fructose

Fructose has the highest sweetness of any non-artifical commercial sweetener.

    • Maltodextrin

Maltodextrin doesn’t really have any sweetness, but it is often used commercially in combination with other sweeteners to help control sweetness.


Honey is mainly composed of fructose (appox. 38%) and glucose (approx. 31%). Chemically, it is similar to liquid invert sugar.

Maple Syrup

The sap from the maple tree is about 1% to 4% sucrose. After being boiled and concentrated, the resulting maple syrup is roughly 60% sucrose (with small amounts of fructose and glucose).

Agave Nector

Generally made from agave starch, the final product can contain 50% to 90% fructose.

Artificial Sweeteners

Aspartame is an artifical sweetener discovered in 1965 and marketed under the brands NutraSweet, Equal and Sugar Twin.

This artificial sweetener is stable under heat and over a broad range of pH conditions, making it ideal for baking or products that require a longer shelf life. Sucralose is commonly sold under the brand names Splenda and Sukrana.

Saccharin has a bitter or metallic aftertaste, especially at high concentrations. It is used to sweeten products such as drinks, candies, cookies, medicines, and toothpaste. The Sweet’N Low brand contains saccharin.

How Do These Sweeteners Compare?

One standard approach is to take the sweetness of sucrose as our base, and then compare all other sweeteners to it. First, assign a value of 100 to the sweetness of sucrose. Now, let’s make a table:

Sweetener Sweetness Value
Suclarose 600
Saccharin 300
Fructose 150 – 170
Aspartame 160 – 200
Agave Nectar 140 – 160
Sucrose 100
High Fructose Corn Syrup 100
Brown Sugar 97
Honey 97
Glucose (Dextrose) 70 – 80
Molasses 70
Maple Syrup 60

So, this gives us a very rough sweetness scale. We can see that some things are sweeter than others and by how much.

How Useful is this Sweetness Scale?

Is this scale useful? Probably not. At least not to the ordinary person. If you want to increase or decrease the sweetness in a recipe, you cannot just substitute from the scale. There are many other factors to consider. Some sweeteners (Maple syrup, molasses, and honey) contribute unique flavours to a recipe. Some are more liquid than others, and some cannot stand the heat of cooking.

Final Thoughts

My list is by no means complete. There are dozens of natural and artificial sweeteners that have been left out. What are some of the sweeteners you like to use? Where do they fit on the scale?


  1. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) – Food Ingredients
  2. Oregon State University – Food Resource
  3. Experimental Cookery From The Chemical And Physical Standpoint
  4. The Pastry Chef’s Apprentice
  5. Elmhurst College – Virtual ChemBook – Sweeteners



Posted in Fun, Ingredients

101 Ways to Cook With Beer

picture of a glass of beer

Why Cook With Beer?

Why should you cook with beer? Well, there are a lot of reasons, but here are just a few…


When beer batter is heated it releases bubbles of carbon dioxide. This is great for batters because it makes for a light, crispy crust.

Marinades, Bastes and Brines:

In marinades, brines and bastes, the alcohol in the beer is able to penetrate meat better than other liquids. This allows it to carry flavour deeper into the meat.


It is as simple as that. Beer adds flavour. Depending on the variety, beers can have smokey, sweet, bitter, acidic, or a combination of flavours.

In addition to the flavour of the beer itself, the alcohol in beer is able to dissolve essential oils and other organic compounds that are not soluble in water. Once dissolved, the flavours are more available to your senses of smell and taste.

picture of a glass of beer

Beer. Good for more than just drinking

Beer Recipes

Now, let’s get to the recipes. If you favourite recipe isn’t here, leave a comment and let us know about it.

  1. Guiness Braised Lamb Shanks – Mommie Cooks
  2. Chocolate Guinness Cake – Simply Recipes
  3. Beer Battered Cod Fish and Chips – Brown Eyed Baker
  4. Cheddar Beer and Mustard Pull Apart Bread – Smitten Kitchen
  5. Cheddar Cheese Soup with Ale Potato and Bacon – Brown Eyed Baker
  6. Chocolate Stout Cake – Love and Olive Oil
  7. Beer Cheese Bread – Mommie Cooks
  8. Beer Brown Sugar Kielbasa with Sauerkraut – Brown Eyed Baker
  9. Black and Tan Cupcakes – Dinner with Julie
  10. Guinness Milk Chocolate Ice Cream – Brown Eyed Baker
  11. Beer and Cheese Soup – Mommie Cooks
  12. Gingerbread Stout Cupcakes with White Chocolate Buttercream – Love and Olive Oil
  13. Gingerbread Beer Cake with Bittersweet Chocolate Frosting – Shauna Sever
  14. Beer and Pretzel Caramels – Brown Eyed Baker
  15. Beer Waffles with Cinnamon Caramel Apples – Brown Eyed Baker
  16. Beer Can Chicken – Simply Recipes
  17. Crockpot Hirino Psito Slow Roasted Pork – A Year of Slow Cooking
  18. Guinness Bread with Molasses – Simply Recipes
  19. Carbonnade Beef and Beer Stew – Simply Recipes
  20. Car Bomb Cupcakes – Smitten Kitchen
  21. Beef and Three Bean Chili Recipe – Pinch My Salt
  22. Chocolate Stout Cupcakes with Vanilla Cream Cheese Frosting – Pinch My Salt
  23. Short-rib Beef Stew with Ale – Simply Recipes
  24. Arroz con Pollo (Cuban Chicken with Rice) – Smitten Kitchen
  25. Dark Chocolate Stout Brownies – Farm Girl Gourmet
  26. Beer Braised Chicken – Life with Mel
  27. Beer Braised Beef with Onions – The Pioneer Woman
  28. Beef Stew with Beer and Paprika – The Pioneer Woman
  29. Welsh Rarebit – The Pioneer Woman
  30. Smoked Beer Can Turkey – Cooking for Engineers
  31. Bread Pudding with White Chocolate Stout Drizzle – She Knows
  32. Chocolate Stout Pudding Pie – The Kitchn
  33. Braised Short-Ribs, Stout, Potato Potpies – Martha Stewart
  34. Slow Cooker Stout and Chicken Stew – Eating Well
  35. Chocolate Stout and Irish Cream Whoopie Pies – Bake My Away
  36. Maple-Stout Glazed Salmon – Ricardo Cuisine
  37. Beer and Chorizo Braised Beef – Ricardo Cuisine
  38. Beer Steamed Mussels – Ricardo Cuisine
  39. Beer Battered Fried Calamari with Cucumber Sauce – Ricardo Cuisine
  40. Onion Soup with Beer – Ricardo Cuisine
  41. Beer Soup – Ricardo Cuisine
  42. Pizza Dough with Beer – Ricardo Cuisine
  43. Chocolate Stout Crepes and Irish Cream Whip – Country Cleaver
  44. Beef Carrot and Stout Stew – Huey’s Kitchen
  45. Pork Chops with Guinness Stout and Onion Gravy – The Recipe Archive
  46. Stout-Marinated Ribs with Honey Glaze Recipe – Razzle Dazzle Recipes
  47. Chicken Drumsticks with Apple Stout Barbecue Sauce – Taste Book
  48. Beer Battered Asparagus – Epicurious
  49. Beer Steamed Crabs – Saveur
  50. Beer Pancakes – All Recipes
  51. Beer Steamed Clams with Bacon and Tomatoes – Steamy Kitchen
  52. Guinness Corned Beef with Cabbage – Steamy Kitchen
  53. Chocolate Covered Beer Marshmallows – How Sweet It Is
  54. Mac and Beer Cheese Cups – Betty Crocker
  55. Belgian Meatballs Braised In Beer Recipe – Recipe Ideas
  56. Beer Braised Pork Tacos – Diets in Review
  57. Baja Fish Tacos – Average Betty
  58. Beer Battered Walleye – Happy Day Lodge
  59. Vegan Fried Green Beer Tomatoes – One Green Planet
  60. Beer Batter Deep Fried Chicken – Southern Fried Chicken
  61. Beer and Caraway Seed Mustard –
  62. Golden Beer Cupcakes, with Beer & Bacon Frosting – 1 Fine Cookie
  63. Spicy Beer Battered Fried Shrimp & Sweet Red Remoulade Sauce – Black and Married with Children
  64. Beer Ice Cream – LA Times
  65. Spice Cake – Italian Dessert Recipes
  66. Orange Zest Pancakes Spiked with Beer – TreeHugger
  67. Beer Braised Chicken – Marcus Samuelsson
  68. Warm Potato Salad with Beer Dressing – What’s Cooking America
  69. Jalapeno Beer Baklava – Celebration Generation
  70. Beer Barbecue Sauce and Marinade – Robbie’s Recipes
  71. Beer Cheese Cupcakes with Bacon Cheddar Cream Cheese Frosting – Cupcake Project
  72. Beer Battered Deep Fried Egg Plant – Ashbury’s Aubergines
  73. Beer Braised Meatballs and Spaghetti – Cully’s Kitchen
  74. Black and Tan Beer Caramel – My Man’s Belly
  75. Beer Brat Pasta – National Pasta Association
  76. Fried Pork Belly with Beer – Panlasang Pinoy Meaty Recipes
  77. Beer Scalloped Potatoes –
  78. Pepperjack Beer Battered Mushroom – Life’s Ambrosia
  79. Beer Battered String Beans – Hostess with the Mostess
  80. Best Chili – Moms who Think
  81. Whole Grain Beer Bread – Peanut Butter Boy
  82. Stuffed Pork Chops with Beer Glazed Onions – Pork – Be Inspired
  83. Beer Crust Pizza – King Arthur Flour
  84. Beer Marinaded Asian Baby Back Ribs – Draft Magazine
  85. Beer Battered Apples – Inspired Taste
  86. Baked Ham and Beer – Spark People
  87. Beer Braised Beef Stew with Brussels Sprouts – Whole Foods
  88. Baked Beans with Beer and Bacon –
  89. Beer Pot Pie – Mama Knows
  90. Coconut Beer Shrimp – Recipes Wiki
  91. The Lady and Sons Beer Battered Fried Shrimp – Paula Dean
  92. Beer Roasted Chicken – Finest Chef
  93. Beer Cheese Potato Gratin – Beer Bity
  94. Beer French Toast – Beer Bity
  95. Grilled Beer and Honey Chicken with Barley and Lentil Salad – Granny’s
  96. Beer Popsicle – Wonder How To?
  97. Skirt Steak with Mexican Beer Marinade – Man Tested Recipes
  98. Salted Beer Caramels –
  99. Kielbasa in Maple and Beer – Disney
  100. Double Chocolate Stout Beer Brownies – 52 Cakes
  101. Beer Battered Fish Sandwich – Life’s Ambrosia

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Posted in 101 Ways To..., Baking, Cooking, Fun, Ingredients

Caramel Colour

picture of a can of diet coke

What is Caramel Colour?

picture of a can of diet coke

Colas contain a large amount of caramel colour per serving

In the food industry, caramel colour is a water soluble colouring that ranges from pale yellow to dark brown.  It is one of the oldest and most widely used food colourings.


It might sound obvious, but it is called caramel because it is formed by a process called caramelization.  Caramelization is the controlled heating of carbohydrates (sugars) usually in the presence of acids, alkalis or salts.  The process takes place under high temperatures and pressures.  Caramel colour has an odor of burnt sugar and a slightly bitter taste.

There are four classes of caramel colour.  Each class is defined by its manufacturing process and has limits on preparation and use.

Plain Caramel:

  • Also called caustic caramel or spirit caramel.
  • No ammonium or sulfite compounds can be used during manufacturing.

Caustic Sulfite Caramel:

  • Sulfite compound can be used during manufacturing, but ammonium compounds cannot be used.

Ammonia Caramel:

  • Also called baker’s caramel, confectioner’s caramel, or beer caramel.
  • Can be prepared in the presence of ammonium compounds but sulfite compounds cannot be used.

Sulfite Ammonia Caramel:

  • Also called acid-proof caramel or soft drink caramel.
  • Prepared in the presence of both ammonium and sulfite compounds.

Common Uses:

Caramel colour is found in many commercially produced foods.  Some examples of processed foods that might contain caramel colour include:

      • beer,
      • brown bread,
      • chocolate,
      • cookies,
      • spirits and liquor such as brandy, rum, and whiskey,
      • potato chips,
      • gravy browning,
      • ice cream,
      • sauces and dressings,
      • soft drinks (especially colas)1

Side Effects / Health Issues:

Does Caramel Colour Cause Cancer?

The Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) says yes, and have petitioned the FDA to ban certain types of caramel colouring.

Why?  During the manufacturing process, certain chemical reactions result in the formation of 2-methylimidazole and 4-methylimidazole; chemicals the state of California classes as carcinogens (cancer causing substances).

Recently, the CSPI reported finding unsafe levels of these chemicals in Coke and Pepsi.  Oddly enough, the same week both companies announced they were changing their processing methods to reduce the levels.  The cola companies say the CSPI report is flawed and that the caramel colouring does not pose any risk to humans, but they do not want to put a carcinogen warning on their cans which is what would be required under California law.2

The FDA appears to side with the cola companies.  They claim that a person would have to drink 1000 cans of cola a day to risk cancer.4

E Number:

In general, the E number of caramel colour is 150.  However, since there are different classes of caramel colour, there are letters appended to the number to identify them.

    • Plain caramel has an E number of 150a
    • Caustic sulfite caramel has an E number of 150b
    • Ammonia caramel has an E number of 150c
    • Sulfite ammonia caramel has an E number of 150d

Personal Notes:

There are a lot of reasons to avoid drinking colas.5  When I read about the use of caramel in sodas, it is easy to become suspicious.  We know that these companies are rich and powerful.  Would they knowingly continue to use a cancer causing substance to avoid loosing money?  Could they use there power to influence the FDA?

Although the cancer risk from caramel colour may be low, I think it might be better to avoid it when possible.

Avoid these kinds of chemicals.  Buy and cook your own fresh unprocessed food.


  1. UK Food Guide
  2. Food Safety News – Cola Carcinogen Debate Bubbles Over
  3. Wikipedia – Caramel Colour
  4. Reuters – Coke, Pepsi Make Changes
  5. Fooducate Blog – Another Reason to Quit Cola
Posted in Colour, Food Additives

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